Coal is an important source of energy and fuel in several industries across the world. We mainly use coal mainly for steam coal (power generation) and coking coal (metallurgical coal). India has many private and public sector thermal power plants. 56.89% of power plants in India are run on coal. Steel plants are the second-highest user of coal. Coking coal is used to melt iron in the furnace that is processed further to produce steel. The cement industry is an energy-intensive industry. Coal is the primary source of energy. Other industries such as paper and the aluminum industry all require coal for energy. Several industries use the by-products of coal.
India has the 5th-largest coal reserves in the world. It produced 662.79 MMT (million metric tons) of coal in 2016-17. India is forced to import coal due to high demand and the poor quality of Indian coal. India is the second-largest importer of coal. India accounted for 17.5% of the total imported coal worldwide.
Coal import data India revealed that India imported 235.24 MMT of coal in 2018-19. This showed an 11% jump from the previous year when imports were 208.27. Coal is one of the top 5 commodities imported by India. 77% of the imported coal was non-coking coal. The jumps in imports are because of the increased imports in thermal coal which showed a 12.6% jump to 197.84 MMT in 2019. The increase is because of the lower coal production by Coal India Ltd. But imports of coking coal fell marginally from 51.63 MMT in 2018 to 51.33 MMT in 2019.
The Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 has affected coal imports. All major activities are halted in some major ports. Mormugao India’s third busiest coking coal terminal port.
Coal import data India is collected from custom ports around India. The data is collated from the entries made in the bill of lading or from the shipping manifest submitted to customs authorities. The data contains the following information: - production information (product description, product HS Codes, product total quantity and unit quantity, and cost of the shipment), port details (port of origin and destination port), and name and contact details of the importer and exporter.
The top 5 importing partners of coal are:-
Indonesia accounted for nearly 60% of India’s thermal coal import, while South Africa accounted for 22% of India’s thermal coal.
The main Coal importers in India are:-
India’s coal reserves are vastly underutilized, the government of India recently allowed 100% FDI in mining. The government hopes to boost production to reduce import dependence. The entry of private players can help improve productivity and increase competitiveness and demand. The dominant presence of Coal India, land acquisition laws and environmental clearance required are major hurdles.
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